Simple vehicle routing as in a traveling sales man problem is the simplest to handle. Considering the traffic and street network characteristics an Emergency Response vehicle can be routed to for from an accident site. Service areas for ER teams, Sales and Warehousing logistics can be addressed using the Service area analysis. We can look at optimizing locations of an ATM, ER team location, Warehouse so as to cover maximum customer within a short travel time. We can also plan this on multi-modal networks (i.e) combine road, rail, walk etc.
Agriculture / Agricultural Engineering
One of the major requirements in this sector is assessment of the acreage of crops being grown. This can be done effectively using a satellite image and Image Processing software. Erosion assessment can be done for determining the type of treatment a land needs. This will prevent the removal of top soil which holds the organo-minerals needed for plant growth. Water is another resource in a watershed that needs attention. The structures like small check dams, tanks and recharge shafts to recharge the ground water can be studies. We can use a weighted / fuzzy overlay analysis to select suitable sites for building the water harvesting structures.
Data utility is done for Creation / Conversion, Maintenance and Reporting. We also use viewshed analysis that shows all the areas from which the building could be seen as well as any views that would be obscured from any particular location. Viewshed analyses are also used to locate fire observation stations in mountain areas. Microwave communication is used in digital format. One of the main utility in GIS is Geocoding. We use Geocoding for obtaining geographic coordinates. Other similar applications are used for the same purpose to get best results.
Sugar Industry
Soil mapping for micro-nutrients is essential to balance the amount of fertilizer to be used and to make a decision on rotation of crops. We would need to assess the quality of the produce coming from a certain type of soil to address which areas of the land need which and how much of fertilizer.A sugar factory need information on the catchment from where it gets cane from the farmers and try and increase the IP/OP by managing the net sown area.
Disaster Risk Assessment
Using elevation data we have assessed which and how much area is prone for flooding during a tsunami / cyclone / flood. This is used in conjunction with existing infrastructure layer to do a risk mapping and estimate the loss in money terms. Slope instability on certain soils because of rain, deforestation etc can be assessed and remedial measures taken. Mapping high risk industries and their proximity to populations can be done. We have carried out flood mapping for a UN funded flood analysis in Bihar for the Kosi river flooding. Using old satellite images and the topographical maps along with Shuttle Radar Topography data assessed how the river course has change over the last 4 decades and which settlements are vulnerable.
In the tourism domain, GIS is used in Mapping POIs and routing. GIS helps to find out the place which interest every person. It can act as a guide map to travel from one place to another. It is also used in mapping archaeology sites.
Topographic Surveys
Topographic surveys are to capture 3D observation data on site. The survey output can be provided in various forms but in many cases the final information is provided in AutoCad format for design purposes.
GPS / DGPS Surveying
The GPS (Global Positioning System) is one of the viable systems which meets the requirements of the surveying fraternity. It is used to provide precise estimates of position, velocity and time of the antenna location of the system receiver.
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